genesis_highlighted_case

Good Practices for integrating climate change adaptation: Lessons from Local Partners in Cambodia

Type: 
Good practice
Topic: 
Agriculture
Disaster risk management
Fragile Ecosystems
Water Management
Country: 
Asia
Location: 
Cambodia
Keywords: 
climate change adaptation; good practices; Cambodia
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
In each phase of the JCCI programme, partners put the knowledge gained from the workshops into practical use within the community. The pilot projects were intended to be short-term efforts that not only allowed partners to apply their new knowledge but also addressed community needs. Besides transferring knowledge at local level, JCC has written a document titled “Good Practices for integrating climate change adaptation: Lessons from Local Partners in Cambodia”. The document is intended to inspire Cambodian organisations and institutions and organisations within similar contexts around the world to address the impacts of climate change in their existing programmes and practices. Its aim is to provide some useful approaches for programme planning and implementation that incorporates climate change responses while also educating people about the impact of climate change particularly in Cambodia.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
Youth and women are playing an increased role in the advocacy and problem solving needed to deal with the impact of climate change across the globe. In Cambodia, JCCI worked with three organisations that implement programmes specifically working with youth and women. The Khmer Youth Association (KYA), People’s Center for Development and Peace (PDP) and Khmer Youth and Social Development (KYSD) are working individually and collectively to ensure that youth are participating in climate change action and advocacy on community and national levels. JCCI partner Banteay Srei, which aims to empower vulnerable women in Siem Reap, worked with villages to elect community facilitators, who helped to identify and prioritize needs and activities to reduce disaster risk and address climate change. After the outreach process, the results were included in a small village pilot proposal. The success of that project will be used to seek funding for other community development projects. Through the process of discussing how crop harvests have been impacted by climate change and by working to identify needs in their own villages, local community members have begun to understand how to maintain their quality of life in a changing climate.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
For many Cambodian organisations, the collaborative work that occurs at the local level has a significant impact upon building relationships needed to address climate change problems far into the future. “We had the cooperation of the local authorities when we wrote the concept note for partnership in the JCCI project,” said Provincial Team Leader Kheiu Sopheak from Development and Partnership in Action (DPA). We worked closely with the village disaster committee to identify the things that needed to be done and put those items into the plan for the community.” DPA has a long history of working with people at the village level, in building their capacity to advocate for their own rights. DPA and community members worked with the local authorities to determine the criteria for selecting who would receive water filters, which farms would dedicate a plot of land for using drip irrigation or covered beds, and which homes would have the installation of a bio-gas “digester”, which uses cow dung to create gas used for cooking and lighting in the home. The relationships developed during the planning activities were valuable and ensured the success of the project. The NGO Forum on Cambodia (NGO Forum) engages in national and international advocacy initiatives on behalf of its members, whom are mostly local NGOs operating in a number of sectors. NGO Forums also conducted organising activities with their members such as the Cambodian Civil Society Statement on climate change that was presented to the CoP 18 of the UNFCCC in November-December 2012. NGO Forums use their contacts and connections from their existing programmes on development, environment, land and livelihoods to conduct advocacy on a national level.
Principle 5: 
Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Principle 5 comment: 
Until recently, much of Cambodian civil society and local communities had little understanding of climate change issues. Forum Syd, DCA/CA, and Cord recognised that as a cross cutting issue, addressing climate change in organisational programming required a coordinated and systematic response. The organisations formed the Joint Climate Change Initiative (JCCI) in 2009 to combine their resources to build the capacity of locally-based, rural NGos to integrate climate change actions within their existing projects and programmes. By focusing on enhancing current initiatives and programmes instead of launching separate activities, JCCI demonstrated how to integrate climate change adaptation into a strategic, long term development process for rural communities. JCCI sought to generate results: raising awareness and understanding about climate change, developing a base of useful methods and tools for building adaptive capacity and designing and piloting local initiatives that expanded current programmes to respond to climate change issues. With a consistent process of coaching, mentoring and providing feedback to partner organizations, JCCI cultivated an environment for learning by doing. Simultaneously, JCCI was also involved in climate change advocacy on a national and international level. The JCCI collaboration resulted in accomplishments greater than what could have been achieved individually.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
Addressing the issues of climate change at the community level is complex. It involves sophisticated science and specific technical terms, new technology, involvement with a wide variety of stakeholders, and changes in people’s behaviours and beliefs. JCCI recognised that their Cambodian partner organisations would need to receive intensive education and capacity building from the Consortium to both understand climate change and to build effective responses to climate change impacts. JCCI developed and implemented a training curriculum that covered a variety of subjects. Phase 1 partners were exposed to five learning modules that were then expanded by three field practicums in the second phase. The JCCI curriculum incorporated topics such as climate change science, strategies for climate change adaptation, an assessment of the organisations’ internal operations, and how climate change adaptation strategies might be implemented and integrated into their existing programmes. These topics were covered through both lecture and group discussion. Partners then learned how to use planning tools that encouraged meaningful participation of community residents and local authorities. The partners conducted a functional analysis and a situational analysis with these stakeholders. The results from the planning workshops were used to develop and implement pilot projects that addressed the needs of the community on the local level.
Abstract: 
This case is intended to inspire organisations and institutions to address the impacts of climate change in their existing programmes and practices. Its aim is to provide some useful approaches for programme planning and implementation that incorporates climate change responses while also educating people about the impact of climate change, drawing lessons from experience in Cambodia.

The weather events that result from the changes in the earth’s temperature caused by global warming have far-reaching impacts on the livelihoods of Cambodians.

How did you know?: 
Academia
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Joint Climate Change Initiative
Email Flag: 
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genesis_Cases

Good Practices for integrating climate change adaptation: Lessons from Local Partners in Cambodia

Type: 
Good practice
Topic: 
Agriculture
Disaster risk management
Fragile Ecosystems
Water Management
Country: 
Asia
Location: 
Cambodia
Keywords: 
climate change adaptation; good practices; Cambodia
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
In each phase of the JCCI programme, partners put the knowledge gained from the workshops into practical use within the community. The pilot projects were intended to be short-term efforts that not only allowed partners to apply their new knowledge but also addressed community needs. Besides transferring knowledge at local level, JCC has written a document titled “Good Practices for integrating climate change adaptation: Lessons from Local Partners in Cambodia”. The document is intended to inspire Cambodian organisations and institutions and organisations within similar contexts around the world to address the impacts of climate change in their existing programmes and practices. Its aim is to provide some useful approaches for programme planning and implementation that incorporates climate change responses while also educating people about the impact of climate change particularly in Cambodia.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
Youth and women are playing an increased role in the advocacy and problem solving needed to deal with the impact of climate change across the globe. In Cambodia, JCCI worked with three organisations that implement programmes specifically working with youth and women. The Khmer Youth Association (KYA), People’s Center for Development and Peace (PDP) and Khmer Youth and Social Development (KYSD) are working individually and collectively to ensure that youth are participating in climate change action and advocacy on community and national levels. JCCI partner Banteay Srei, which aims to empower vulnerable women in Siem Reap, worked with villages to elect community facilitators, who helped to identify and prioritize needs and activities to reduce disaster risk and address climate change. After the outreach process, the results were included in a small village pilot proposal. The success of that project will be used to seek funding for other community development projects. Through the process of discussing how crop harvests have been impacted by climate change and by working to identify needs in their own villages, local community members have begun to understand how to maintain their quality of life in a changing climate.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
For many Cambodian organisations, the collaborative work that occurs at the local level has a significant impact upon building relationships needed to address climate change problems far into the future. “We had the cooperation of the local authorities when we wrote the concept note for partnership in the JCCI project,” said Provincial Team Leader Kheiu Sopheak from Development and Partnership in Action (DPA). We worked closely with the village disaster committee to identify the things that needed to be done and put those items into the plan for the community.” DPA has a long history of working with people at the village level, in building their capacity to advocate for their own rights. DPA and community members worked with the local authorities to determine the criteria for selecting who would receive water filters, which farms would dedicate a plot of land for using drip irrigation or covered beds, and which homes would have the installation of a bio-gas “digester”, which uses cow dung to create gas used for cooking and lighting in the home. The relationships developed during the planning activities were valuable and ensured the success of the project. The NGO Forum on Cambodia (NGO Forum) engages in national and international advocacy initiatives on behalf of its members, whom are mostly local NGOs operating in a number of sectors. NGO Forums also conducted organising activities with their members such as the Cambodian Civil Society Statement on climate change that was presented to the CoP 18 of the UNFCCC in November-December 2012. NGO Forums use their contacts and connections from their existing programmes on development, environment, land and livelihoods to conduct advocacy on a national level.
Principle 5: 
Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Principle 5 comment: 
Until recently, much of Cambodian civil society and local communities had little understanding of climate change issues. Forum Syd, DCA/CA, and Cord recognised that as a cross cutting issue, addressing climate change in organisational programming required a coordinated and systematic response. The organisations formed the Joint Climate Change Initiative (JCCI) in 2009 to combine their resources to build the capacity of locally-based, rural NGos to integrate climate change actions within their existing projects and programmes. By focusing on enhancing current initiatives and programmes instead of launching separate activities, JCCI demonstrated how to integrate climate change adaptation into a strategic, long term development process for rural communities. JCCI sought to generate results: raising awareness and understanding about climate change, developing a base of useful methods and tools for building adaptive capacity and designing and piloting local initiatives that expanded current programmes to respond to climate change issues. With a consistent process of coaching, mentoring and providing feedback to partner organizations, JCCI cultivated an environment for learning by doing. Simultaneously, JCCI was also involved in climate change advocacy on a national and international level. The JCCI collaboration resulted in accomplishments greater than what could have been achieved individually.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
Addressing the issues of climate change at the community level is complex. It involves sophisticated science and specific technical terms, new technology, involvement with a wide variety of stakeholders, and changes in people’s behaviours and beliefs. JCCI recognised that their Cambodian partner organisations would need to receive intensive education and capacity building from the Consortium to both understand climate change and to build effective responses to climate change impacts. JCCI developed and implemented a training curriculum that covered a variety of subjects. Phase 1 partners were exposed to five learning modules that were then expanded by three field practicums in the second phase. The JCCI curriculum incorporated topics such as climate change science, strategies for climate change adaptation, an assessment of the organisations’ internal operations, and how climate change adaptation strategies might be implemented and integrated into their existing programmes. These topics were covered through both lecture and group discussion. Partners then learned how to use planning tools that encouraged meaningful participation of community residents and local authorities. The partners conducted a functional analysis and a situational analysis with these stakeholders. The results from the planning workshops were used to develop and implement pilot projects that addressed the needs of the community on the local level.
Abstract: 
This case is intended to inspire organisations and institutions to address the impacts of climate change in their existing programmes and practices. Its aim is to provide some useful approaches for programme planning and implementation that incorporates climate change responses while also educating people about the impact of climate change, drawing lessons from experience in Cambodia.

The weather events that result from the changes in the earth’s temperature caused by global warming have far-reaching impacts on the livelihoods of Cambodians.

How did you know?: 
Academia
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Joint Climate Change Initiative
Email Flag: 
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Accelerated Agricultural Intensification for Social and Environmental Stability

Type: 
Good practice
Acronym: 
CATALIST
Topic: 
Agriculture
Management and/or conservation of land use
Cross cutting: 
Capacity Building
Awareness Raising
Governmental and intergovernmental actions
Country: 
Rwanda
Burundi
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Keywords: 
CATALIST
IFDC
agriculture
management
CAGLR
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
The mandate of the CATALIST project was to reduce poverty, increase food security, enhance regional collaboration and to contribute to peace and security in Central Africa's Great Lakes Region (CAGLR) through agricultural development. The government of Rwanda though its ministry of agriculture, supported the CATALIST project as well as the ISFM approach as the foundation for susceptible agricultural production. Similarly, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) had also an interest in agricultural intensification which was noted to be rapidly increasing by March 2012. The governments helped in disseminating CATALIS methods and information to over 1,500 partners, both public and private. The 'Ruzizi without Borders' program was launched by CATALIST and the Economic Community of the Great Lakes to promote intensified rice production in the Rizizi palin, shared by the three countries.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
IFDC partnered with the government and non-governmental organization in Central Africa's Great Lakes Regions. Collaborating partners were; Farmer-based organization, national and international nongovernmental organizations, Burundi Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Rwanda Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources. IFDC indicated that it will continue to scale-up the project (CATALIST) in collaboration with national governments to increase and improve their agricultural development programs. Agri-firm relationships was mainly supported by CATALIST and IFDC which expanded to Burundi and DRC from Rwanda. For example ProFocus is an organization group and businesses seeking to professionalize farm practices.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
The project was funded by the Netherlands’ Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS) and the oversight provided by the Royal Embassy of the Netherlands in Rwanda (IFDC, 2012). The project (CATALIST) supported a number of activities with an aim of increasing the efficiency and financial benefits associated with agricultural intensification e.g improved rice varieties identification, economic analysis of crop/livestock systems, agronomic benefits of liming on acidic soils; and identification of appropriate forms of intermediate mechanization (IFDC, 2012). It also introduced innovative technologies that contributed to reduced production costs and increased agricultural products. An inventory credit system was introduced by CATALIST in 10 cooperatives in the counties (Rwanda, Burundi and DRC) to enable farmers to have access to credit in order for them to reinvest in their farms to increase production. In the three countries, 29 innovative project proposals also received a grant of €260,000 to stimulate the development of private initiatives.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
Farmers and technicians were trained by CATALIST on the integrated soil fertility management (ISFM), among other best practices. A demonstration of the importance of using improved seeds and using quality fertilizers as well as land used management to increased agricultural output was conducted and the effort was expanded to include agro-forestry (IFDC, 2012). Sustainable production systems through capacity building by the CATALIST project were adopted by more than 218,000 smallholder farmers by the year 2012, thus agricultural intensification went beyond the targeted farmers. Technical and financial assistance to 54 agricultural clusters were provided by the CATALIST project. Over 200,000 wheat and maize farmers in Rwanda benefited from the fertilizer voucher program implemented by CATALIST in collaboration with the ministry of agriculture crop intensification program of Rwanda. In supporting the government of Rwanda in its agro – input market development, two opportunities to further promote sustainability were identified by IFDC in Rwanda.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
By the end of the project, 650,000 agricultural stakeholders were the direct and indirect beneficiaries of CATALIST’s outreach, adopting the project’s best practices. This continued to grow through the diffusion of the project. CATALIST-Uganda builds upon the results of the CATALIST experience in Rwanda, Burundi and DRC, it also represents a tailor-made program to address the Ugandan context, incorporating important lessons learned and significant new innovations. In Uganda, it focuses mainly on commercialization of the entire farming system rather than individual commodities, maximizing profits and sustaining and/or improving soil fertility to improve food security over East Africa region. ISFM is the key to increasing agricultural productivity while protecting the environment and maintaining the soil resource base. Therefore this project can be maintained and replicated beyond its lifetime.
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
It was noted that the CATALIST project helped the government of Rwanda to reach 665,000 households to adopt the ISFM technologies, and have been recorded to produce approximately 1 million metric tons of food (IFDC, 2012). In 2012 IFDC also indicated that nearly 218,000 farmers had adopted the sustainable production system as a result of the capacity building and technology transfer. Significant changes have also been reported in Burundi and DRC, while in Rwanda, the intensification technology is more pervasive. For more than 1,000 demonstration plots that adopted the project recommendation, IFDC noted a 20% to 50% reduction in production costs by the farmers. Technical and financial assistance to 54 agricultural clusters was provided by the CATALIST project. There was a provision of temporary employment to 43,582 vulnerable people during the rehabilitation of the 156 kilometers of rural roads.
Start date - End date: 
08/2006 - 01/2012
Abstract: 
Catalyze Accelerated Agricultural Intensification for Social and Environmental Stability (CATALIST) was a project funded by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC). In this project, IFDC partnered with governmental and non-governmental organizations in the Central Africa's Great Lakes Region (CAGLR). IFDC noted that the area under sustainable production by March, 2012, was estimated at 650,000 hectares with more than 714,000 farmers being exposed to agricultural intensification and other technologies and techniques.

Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
IFDC, 2012
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
International Fertilizer Development Cente
Address: 
P.O. Box 2040, Muscle Shoals Alabama, 35662, USA
Email: 
References: 

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IFDC, (2012). Catalyze Accelerated Agricultural Intensification for Social and Environmental Stability.

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Mobilization and capacity building for the commercialization of non-wood forest products in Central Africa

Type: 
Good practice
Topic: 
Agriculture
Disaster risk management
Management and/or conservation of land use
Cross cutting: 
Awareness Raising
Capacity Building
Community Managed Initiatives
Governmental and intergovernmental actions
Country: 
Central Africa
Keywords: 
NTFPs
NWFP
forest
Central Africa
capacity building
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
The NWFP project was funded by European Union between 2007 to 2010 with the aim of building rural entrepreneurial capacity leading to increased revenue as well as sustainable resource management within enabling institutional settings. The Executive Secretariat of the Central Africa Forestry Commission (COMIFAC) and its member countries, was supported by the project to improve the capacity of small and medium enterprises based on NWFP and also to develop policies for NWFP. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) provide income for local poor population in the rural areas, traders, and retailers in the urban areas. The main constraints of the small scale farmers is how to domesticate the NTFPs, they are also faced with limited knowledge about storing technologies, processing opportunities, market information and a lack of networking between different actors in the chain from harvester to trader. Malleson et al. 2014 noted that “forests and trees on farms make essential contributions to human livelihoods and well-being through the provision of ecosystem services, including wild foods, fuel, shelter, medicines, and provision of shade, shelter, and soil retention”.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
Most rural communities harvest and process a variety of products cultivated on farms and from the forest, as harvest seasons are mostly short and vary per product. It has been noted that one third of the harvesters and two thirds of the traders are women. They mainly control the trade market while men control the export market (Awono et al., 2013). The sale of these NTFPs have made some of the small traders become major wholesalers since they are highly traded in DRC and Cameroon, with some earning income between US$1600 to US$2400. 116 persons were interviewed in 23 villages during 2007/2008 season, and their production of African plums was valued at 197,500kg. Some villages e.g. Luanza, Konde Divungu and Boko Kinfulama distinguishable with production estimated at 9,975, 5,750 and 3,717 kg respectively. Furthermore, villages with low production are Kibangu and Boko Disu with an average of 217kg and 344kg respectively. Generally, it should be noted that 58% of African plums are produced for commercial purposes, 28% for personal consumption, 10% as gifts and 4% as losses.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
This project supported the Executive Secretariat of the Central Africa Forestry Commission (COMIFAC) and its member countries to improve the capacity of small and medium enterprises based on non-wood forest products (NWFP) and develop the appropriate policies for sustainable development of the NWFP sector in the region. The ministry of forestry in Cameroon wrote a letter of appreciation to FAO and EU for the involvement in revising the forestry law in Central African region. National programme for eru domestication (eru, from the species Gnetum, is an plant that produces edible seeds and leaves, with some varieties valued in herbal medicine) has been created as a result of the collaboration between CIFOR, CENDEP and ADIE (Cameroonian NGOs), known as PAPCO in Cameroon, funded by the government (Awono et al., 2013).
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
The project was funded by the European Union (EU) for the period of the project (2007-2010). The aim of the project was to increase revenues for rural populations. This was achieved through enabling sustainable resource management and building entrepreneurial capacities of local poor communities. The NTFPs products are affordable to the local communities. The cost of a dish of fumbwa in small restaurants (accessible to different classes) in Kinshasa is on average US$0.76. One of biggest limitations to the farmer is access to finance, which is associated with poor access to financial institutions. This is also due to the fear of past banking crisis and ignorance on behalf of both farmers and the banking institutions.
Principle 5: 
Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Principle 5 comment: 
Awono et al. 2013 mentioned that, “Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are goods of biological origin (plant, fungi and animal) from natural, modified or managed forested landscapes”. The NTFPs are important for food security, tax revenues and they are also essential for health. It has been noted that thirty percent of the products harvested in DRC and Cameroon e.g bushmeat, vegetables (baobab leaves), fruits, oil-providing seeds, bush pepper, bitter cola etc are used for food. In small restaurants (accessible to different classes) in Kinshasa (DRC), a dish of fumbwa cost is on average US$0.76, while in Cameroon, a dish of eru goes for approximately USD$1 for the same type of restaurant. Thus the food from forest products are affordable (Awono et al., 2013). In terms of health, more than 500 plants have medicinal value in both Cameroon and the DRC and used by the local communities. The rural population mainly use them for health-care due to their low cost making them affordable to the poor. The classified NTFPs in both DRC and Cameroon generates revenue for the countries from trade.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
The project is highly replicable. It was implemented in Cameroon (i.e. Center-South-Littoral Province, North-West Province, South-West-West Province and East Province) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (i.e. Kinshasa, Equateur and Bas-Congo) by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) who is the main project coordinator, partnering with the Center for International Forestry Research, Netherlands Development Organization and the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF). The project improved livelihoods in the implementing countries, since the products are act as a source of revenue, offering medicinal value and greater food security. Therefore this type of project can be adopted by other countries, with the co-benefit of conserving forests and game reserves.
Start date - End date: 
11/2006 - 10/2010
Abstract: 
Mobilization and capacity building for small and medium scale enterprises involved in the production and commercialization of non-wood forest products (NWFP) in Central Africa is a project financed by the European Union, with the aim of increasing revenues for the rural population. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can provide income for poor communities in the rural areas, traders, and retailers in the urban areas. The NTFPs includes medicinal plants, essences, nuts, fruits and vegetables among others.

Findings indicate that remote communities and poorer households rely more on NTFP based income compared to more accessible communities and wealthier households.

Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
FAO
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Yaoundé, Cameroon
References: 

Awono, A., Ingram, V., Schure, J. and Levang, P. (2013). Guide for small and medium enterprises in the sustainable non-timber forest product trade in Central Africa. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Malleson, R., Asaha, S., Egot, M., Kshatriya, M., Marshall, E., Obeng-Okrah, K., & Sunderland, T. (2014). Non-timber forest products income from forest landscapes of Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria–an incidental or integral contribution to sustaining rural livelihoods?. International Forestry Review, 16(3), 261-277.

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Talensi Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration Project - Social Return on Investment

Type: 
Good practice
Topic: 
Agriculture
Fragile Ecosystems
Water Management
Other
Afforestation, Reforestation and restoration
Cross cutting: 
Capacity Building
Community Managed Initiatives
Gender
Country: 
Ghana
Location: 
Talensi district in Northeastern Ghana
Geographic coverage: 
Regional
Keywords: 
climate vulnerability; natural resource management; farmer-managed natural regeneration; resilience; livelihoods
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
The FMNR project in Talensi developed connections with research organisations in other African countries where FMNR has been implemented, thus contributing to knowledge building and exchange. For instance, the project enabled 20 farmers (chosen by participating communities in Talensi to become the project’s lead farmers) to spend time in Burkina Faso to learn from their counterparts about FMNR and associated activities.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
Local communities were consulted during the planning phases and participated in the implementation of project activities. Project implementers first consulted with the chiefs, elders and land custodians in the nine pilot areas to discuss the concept of FMNR, and then with the communities. A campaign to raise awareness of the project was carried out through local visits and radio broadcasts. In each of the nine project areas, chiefs and community assemblies selected 10 men and 10 women to make up their community’s FMNR group that went on to received training in FMNR techniques and practices (e.g. integrating trees with annual crops, shrub pruning, and sustainable firewood collection). These ‘lead farmers’ went on to train other farmers, with a total of other 180 (90 men and 90 women) lead farmers receiving intensive training and a further 940 farmers receiving some form of training by the end of the project. Some 574 households (37% of all households) have adopted the FMNR system. Of these, 94% reported an increase in soil fertility, some 66% noted the decline in soil erosion and about one-half observed an increase in yields of wild produce and animals as a result of FMNR (e.g. fruits, nuts, rabbits, partridges), and increased access to natural resources has enabled diversification of income and savings. Also, around 157 households adopted fuel-efficient stoves (90 were originally distributed by the project). As a result of FMNR, some 161 hectares of land have now been reforested, hosting around 376,871 indigenous trees, with average tree densities of 2334 per hectare (from baseline of five per hectare). Similarly, 336 hectares of farmland now contain forest cover with 19,024 indigenous trees and average tree densities of 57 per hectare (from baseline of five per hectare). A further accomplishment was that the project trained 109 fire-fighting and fire prevention volunteers who have worked as a fire brigade that helps communities fight bushfires threatening their lands as well as sensitising them about the dangers and consequences of bush fire. To bolster all of these interventions, all nine communities set up by-laws to regulate the harvesting of surplus wood, grasses and other resources.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
The project enlisted the support of a number of Ghanaian government departments and agencies, which were actively involved in different ways and stages, including the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, the Forestry and Agriculture departments, the Information Services Department, and the National Fire Service. Various other organisations also enabled and facilitated the implementation of various project components, such as the Natural Disaster Management Organisation, the Forestry Research Institute, the Community Development and Advocacy Centre and the Talensi Area Development Program, and local NGOs. Crucially, from the outset, the project implementers obtained the support of key traditional authorities in the nine communities in the Talensi district (indigenous chiefs and land custodians) which bolstered involvement in project activities.
Principle 5: 
Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Principle 5 comment: 
The obvious co-benefit achieved by the project was to enable the improvement of both environmental conditions in Talensi and local livelihoods that depend on the natural resource base. In particular, the FMNR has helped ensure the sustainability of charcoal-making by encouraging the harvesting only of branches, rather than removal of the whole tree. Additionally, the use of improved kilns has reduced the amount of wood consumed for charcoal production, making the process much more efficient. Other important benefits were that boys spent less time herding cattle (freeing more time to attend school) and women spent less time collecting firewood (freeing them to participate in educational activities). FMRN has led to increased household and communal assets (e.g. trees and livestock), increased household consumption of natural products sourced locally (e.g. fruits, traditional remedies, bush meat, and thatching and rafters for construction), supplementary incomes (from bee-keeping, bullock farming, fruit gathering and sale, and improved seeds). Further gains were better health benefits (e.g. improved nutrition, and improved respiratory health and reduced accidental burns through use of fuel-efficient stoves), and climate change mitigation (e.g. carbon sequestration by trees).
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
Perhaps the strongest feature of the project was its emphasis on building local capacity by providing intensive training on FMNR practices and techniques to lead farmer households chosen by local communities. Initially, each of the nine communities selected 20 individuals (10 men and 10 women) to act as members of a local FMNR group which went on to receive training in FMNR and in how to led the rest of the community in doing the work. They are expected to act as key transformational agents and encourage neighbouring farmers to engage in and benefit from FMNR. A total of 180 leader farmers (90 women and 90 men) have now received intensive training and support for farm production; another 940 farmers also received training of some kind. Concomitantly, 109 local volunteers were trained to prevent and fight bushfire in the communities.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
The main approach employed for ensuring replication was to train lead farmers in the project areas on FMNR techniques and practices who will then go on to train other farmers so that through demonstration, more and more farmers within and beyond the project area will take up FMNR and other sustainable natural resource management (i.e. tree stump re-growth, fire prevention and fighting, value-adding to non-timer products, such as honey, wild fruits, traditional medicines). Project implementers have been looking into ways to expand all of these practices into the remaining regions of northern Ghana where the charcoal industry has been the major cause of deforestation.
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
WorldVision (the project implementers), ensured that project activities were monitored during the implementation phase in various ways (including frequent field visits) and a final report evaluated the outcomes against initial project aims. One novel feature by WorldVision was to compile a further report that evaluated the impacts of some of the project outcomes according to a Social Return on Investment (SROI) approach, where the aim was to identify which outcomes created the most value for key stakeholders. The report works out the value for money by synthesising the social, economic and environmental values generated by the project according to members of the farming households. The report was based on data collected through various methods (focus groups discussion, key informant interviews, survey of 400 households, field surveillance, and revealed preference). The SROI report revealed that the greatest sources of value generated by the Talensi project were the increase in asset value (as free stocks and livestock) for lead farmer households and neighbouring households as well as the increase in consumption and/or sale of wild resources (fruit, timber, thatch, bush meat and traditional medicines). Further achievements were improved farm yields and improved nutrition, along with greater social cooperation and community leadership development.
Start date - End date: 
09/2009 - 05/2010
Abstract: 
The Talensi district in Northeastern Ghana is located within a semi-arid zone that has been experiencing erratic rainfall and receding forest cover, along with loss of soil fertility and indigenous biodiversity. This has been accompanied by high population growth that has contributed to decreasing household land. The key aim of this project was to encourage local people to adopt a range of Natural Resource Management techniques to improve household resilience and local livelihoods by restoring indigenous trees to community-managed farmland and forests.

Source of funding: 
International - Bilateral
Funding description: 

US$323,816 (Australian Agency for International Development and World Vision Australia)

How did you know?: 
Other
Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
World Vision 2013
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Weston, P and Hong, R
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Mariannhill Landfill Site Conservancy, including bio-energy generation

Type: 
Good practice
Acronym: 
MLC
Topic: 
Afforestation, Reforestation and restoration
Bio-energy
Carbon emission trading
Carbon sinks (other than forests)
Management and/or conservation of land use
Cross cutting: 
Capacity Building
United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Country: 
South Africa
Location: 
Kwazulu-Natal Provnice
Geographic coverage: 
Local (city or municipality)
Keywords: 
engineering
renewable energy
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
landfill gas utilisation
landfill emissions
restoration
Carbon storage
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
The Mariannhill Landfill is a DSW landfill of the eThekwini (formerly Durban) municipality. At present it is a registered conservancy, and is so named the Mariannhill Landfill Conservancy (MLC). MLC consists of a leachate treatment plant, landfill gas recovery and energy generation system, and a material recovery facility for recyclable waste. The ongoing use of the landfill meant the design requirements of the standard gas extraction system needed to be altered. This lead to a revised design of Horizontal Gas Extraction Wells (HWGs) and the start of long term study into the performance HGWs for comparison against traditional vertical gas wells (VGWs). The HGWs have been found to be cheaper, easier to construct and install, and better at producing landfill gas (LFG).
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
MLC is funded by the municipal government, eThekwini municipality. It is registered as a conservancy with the provincial parks board, Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife. Both Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife and the World Conservation Union (IUCN) have approved the level of rehabilitation at the site as suitable habitat for the release of Black-headed dwarf chameleons. The endangered species has since established a healthy population.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
The MLC is registered as a gas-to-electricity CDM project and generates revenue through Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs). The fifth UNFCCC monitoring report estimates a 33851 tCO2e emissions reduction during the period 01/10/2012 – 14/12/2013, earning carbon credits from the World Bank Carbon Finance Unit.
Principle 5: 
Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Principle 5 comment: 
To minimize the impact on the landscape the landfill is surrounded by a buffer zone comprised of protected and restored land, which helps to reduce pollution of the local environment, such as harmful methane emissions, dust, odour and vermin. Restoration during the operational life of the landfill breaks away from the traditional model. At MLC restoration takes place through the establishment of a nursery, the Plant Rescue and Rehabilitation Unit (PRUNIT). PRUNIT operates under a few principles: Try and relocate species to their original aspect. * Import no foreign soils * Relocate grasslands with original topsoil. * Relocate original watercourse species to wetland nurseries for future utilization (in the treatment of leachate). * Create similar habitat to what originally occurred. * Only relocate species within 50 km as per international biodiversity protocol preferably closer or actually within given site. Also lessens carbon footprint. If direct relocation is not feasible the following actions are taken: *Collect seed from locality * Collect cuttings and truncheons. * Bag in original topsoil * Bag in re-used containers. * Plant out an ecology, i.e., more than one species in a bag. * Harden off plants drastically to leave yourself with ZERO maintenance plants. PRUNIT has also established an artificial wetland. The wetland provides secondary ‘polishing’ in the treatment of leachate to high standards (within the limits of the discharge standards required by the South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry for discharge of waste water by irrigation), and for the propagation of wetland plants for the use at other landfill sites. The treated water is then used on the surrounding vegetation and to spray down the dust on the road. The treatment and reuse of leachate as water saves money on pumping in outside water, and decreases the demand on the drinking water supply. This approach has also saved the municipality millions of rands (ZAR) in rehabilitation costs. Linked to the rehabilitation process are several so-called ‘sustainable projects’: the re-introduction of several chameleons species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, carbon storage through the establishment of tree species, and the removal of alien invasive species. This has made MLC a tourist destination with educational and environmental tour groups visiting the landfill site. Every week 60 - 120 students visit the landfill, and the education programme covers the design of the landfill, operations at the landfill, recycling and general conservation. On display at the amphitheater-style education boma (thatched enclosure) are environmentally friendly products made from recycled plastic including cushions made by the local community. From the boma there is a clearly marked trail passing the leachate treatment plant, landfill gas-to-electricity CDM project, Materials Recycling Facility, and PRUNIT area. The landfill is a registered national birding site, and over 180 different bird species have been spotted by environmentalists and hikers. Indigenous trees are marked with both botanical and common names along the conservancy trail in the buffer zone. The walking trail and education centre are examples of ongoing awareness creation.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
At least two thousand people have been educated in the “naturalistic engineering” approach adopted at the MLC, and have potential for different employment opportunities going forward.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
In addition to being a South African success story, the MLC was the first landfill gas-to-electricity generation CDM project for the continent. It has been put forward as the standard model and is being replicated at new landfill sites and some rehabilitated ones around South Africa. The eThekwini municipality has replicated this design at their much larger landfill, Bisasar Road, which receives an average of 4 000 tonnes of waste daily and joins the MLC as part of the ‘Durban Landfill Gas-to-Electricity Project’. The model is currently being implemented at Buffelsdraai Regional Landfill, and will in future be implemented at Lovu Landfill which opened in July 2014. Lovu landfill is within an operational sugarcane farm and little restoration can be done outside the landfill fenceline. At Buffelsdraai land which was previously covered by sugarcane is being restored to coastal forests where, to date, 483 000 trees have been planted through the Buffelsdraai Community Reforestation Project, or “treepreneur” program, where locals cultivate trees in return for credit notes which can be used to obtain food, basic goods and/or pay for school fees. As a successful precedent the MLC has raised interest in landfill gas recovery projects elsewhere in Africa. Unfortunately, the 2008 credit crunch put paid to many potential projects. The MLC project expanded South African engineering, analytical, monitoring, modeling and restoration expertise. While each landfill project is site-specific, the MLC team is uniquely placed to provide assistance in future projects in Africa.
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
Evaluations are carried out in accordance with the CDM policy and include baseline determinations, including conditions of additionality. Monitoring and verification protocols are carried out as per CDM project requirements. A MLC Monitoring Committee consisting of local, provincial and government officials, interested and affected parties, and members of the public meet on a regular basis.
Start date - End date: 
08/1997 - 08/2022
Abstract: 
The Mariannhill Landfill opened in 1997, was awarded National Conservancy status in 2002, and registered as a Clean Development Mechanism in 2006. The technologies at the landfill site are combined in an innovative way, tying together waste management, recycling and biodiversity conservation. The so-called ‘closed-loop system’ provides treatment for leachate, and electricity from degassed methane helping to realize South Africa’s emission reductions. Rehabilitation is on-going, rather than after-the-fact, and indigenous plants and soil are saved and later used to restore the surrounding land.

The eThekwini municipality is located on the eastern coastline of South Africa in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.

Source of funding: 
Local
Funding description: 

Primarily funded through the eThekwini Municipality. Grant donor funding from: The South African Department of Trade and Industry: Critical Infrastructure Programme (CPI) and the South African Department of Minerals and Energy. Loan funding from: French Development Bank.

Contact email: 
How did you know?: 
Academia
Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
Durant Civils (Pty) Ltd, Landfill Conservancies, J. Strachan and J. Pass, Landfill Conservancies, Landfill Conservancies, Landfill Conservancies, Landfill Conservancies, Landfill Conservancies, Landfill Conservancies
References: 

CSIR (2011) Municipal waste management - good practices. Edition 1. CSIR, Pretoria.

Garner, E., (2009) An Assessment of Waste Management Practices in South Africa: A Case Study of Mariannhill Landfill Site, eThekwini Municipality. Department of Architecture, Planning and Housing, University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Impumelelo (2006) Innovations Awards Programme: Mariannhill Landfill Conservancy. Accessed at http://impumelelo.org.za/awards-programme/our-winners/mariannhill-landfi...

Bogner, J.E., and Lee, C.A., (2005) Landfill gas recovery in South Africa: status, issues and markets. Lee International Business Development LLC. Westbrook USA. Accessed at: www.go-worldlee.com/resources/landfill-south-africa.pdf

Khuzwayo, S. (2010) Energy Gas For Marianhill Residents. eThekwini Municipality website. Accessed at: http://www.durban.gov.za/media_publications/News/Main%20News/Pages/Energ...

Landfill Conservancies (2010) Mariannhill Landfill Site Conservancy. Accessed at: http://landfillconservancies.com/mlc_about.htm.

Moodley, L., Parkin, J., Wright, M., Baily, B., Pass, J., (2010). Well, which well? Wastecon 2010 Proceedings, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Parkin, J., (2014) pers comm., 29 August.

Parkin, J., Strachan, L., Bowers A., Wright M. and Winn, R. (2006). Extreme Landfill Engineering: Developing and Managing South Africa’s busiest and largest landfill facilities. Wastecon 2006 Proceedings, Cape Town, South Africa.

Project Summary Document: Durban Landfill-Gas to Electricity. Accessed at: http://www.kznenergy.org.za/download/projects/Durban_Landill-Gas_to_Elec...

Strachan L.J., and Pass, J. (2010) Credits where they’re due: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Energy from waste: An Overview of Africa’s first landfill gas to energy CDM projects. Accessed at: http://landfillconservancies.com/strachan_pass_cdm_projects_waste_rev_ha...

Strachan L.J., Rolando A.J., Wright M.R. and Winn R. (2002) Rescue, Reinstate and Remediate – Landfill Engineering Methods that Conserve the Receiving Environment. Wastecon 2002 Proceedings, IWMSA, Durban, South Africa.

Strachan, L.J. and Couth, B. (2004) Harnessing landfill methane to address global warming: an overview of a CDM-driven landfill gas to electricity project. Waste 2004 Integrated Waste Management and Pollution Control: Policy and Practice, Research and Solutions, Stratford-upon-Avon, 28-30 September 2004, The Waste Conference Limited, pp. 370-378.

Strachan, L.J., Pass, J., and Couth, B., (2006) Trading landfill gas: Kick-starting green gas-to-energy. WasteCon 2006 Proceedings Durban, South Africa.

Strachan, L.J., Wright, M., Pass, J., and Couth, B. and Cooke, S. (2008) Great ExpectationsL landfill gas Production Theory vs Reality. Wastecon 2008 Proceedings, Durban, South Africa.

Trois, C. and Jagath, R. (2011) Sustained Carbon Emissions Reductions through Zero Waste Strategies for South African Municipalities, Integrated Waste Management, Volume II,  Accessed at  http://cdn.intechweb.org/pdfs/18498.pdf

Wright, M., (2009) The Durban Gas to Electricity CDM Project Technical Overview. Accessed at www.dbnlandfillgas2elec.co.za

http://cdm.unfccc.int/filestorage/C/Q/V/CQVEXKS83MRYA269U7WJNTBL1ZD5P0/0545_MR05_ver01.pdf?t=TjV8bmFpMXFlfDAzgaAwnFG4Vubg2LuuKuwT

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Africa Adaptation Programme on Climate Change: Ghana

Type: 
Good practice
Acronym: 
AAP Ghana
Topic: 
Other
Cross cutting: 
Capacity Building
Policy Advice
Community Managed Initiatives
Country: 
Ghana
Location: 
Aowin Suaman, Keta, Fanteakwa, West Mamprusi, Sissala East
Geographic coverage: 
Regional
Keywords: 
Ghana
community
policy
 Capacity building
adaptation to climate change; institutional arrangements; policy; government
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
The project provided an opportunity for young professionals and researchers in Ghana to work in close collaboration with staff in the Climate System Analysis Group based at the University of Cape Town. The collaboration entailed the collection and analysis of climate data in Ghana that was incorporated into modelling to allow for climate projections into the future. Similarly, the project supported the organisation of two international workshops on climate change economics and financing with a view to examining cost-effective adaptation options.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
Regional and district leaders throughout the country participated in the planning and implementation of project activities, and local representatives in five pilot districts were also involved in practical adaptation projects to ensure ownership. Project activities varied in each district. In Sisala East, some 45 women groups in nine communities received domestic animals to raise (goats and sheep), around 2000 mango seedlings were successfully transplanted for crop diversification and talk shows on climate change were conducted on radio for awareness-raising. In Fanteakwa, 16000 seedlings (mahogany, teak and raffia) were transplanted along the Osubin River, nearly 800 cockerels and 50 goats were distributed to 15 communities and 10 water pumping machines were installed for cultivation of vegetables in the dry season. Keta, in turn, saw the building of two footbridges to improve access to farms, markets, schools and enhance the livelihoods of some 1500 people in two communities. Nurseries for growing seedlings and ten water pumps for dry season farming were set up in West Mamprusi. One further district, Aowin Suaman, had 12 sheds containing 96 stalls set up for the relocation of artisans from river banks prone to flooding, with another 3 sheds with 64 stalls set up for women on higher ground; the sites abandoned by the artisans were used for planting coconut seedlings and a new light industrial site was established along with water supply. In addition, flood and drought vulnerabilities maps were created in all five pilot districts, safe havens were identified and mapped and evacuation plans for flood-prone areas prepared. The project also enabled another initiative that has the scope to benefit both local communities and the country more widely, the establishment of eight Automated Weather Stations connected to one high speed computer to enable the Ghana Meteorological Agency to improve the frequency and quality of weather data gathering and analysis.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
The project had the involvement of the Government of Ghana (and relevant agencies) from its inception on account of its national scope and it demonstrated its commitment by making available financial and human resources for implementation of many initiatives. The departments and agencies involved included the Ghana Meteorological Agency, the National Disaster Management Organisation, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, the National Development Planning Commission, the University of Ghana, the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, and Ghana Wildlife Society. This wide involvement of government agencies was to enable the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation approaches into national and subnational development processes that aim to reduce poverty and are sensitive to gender issues. Meetings were organised to actively engage high-level (e.g. from ministerial departments) personnel and policy-makers to obtain their commitment to incorporating climate change into national policy development and implementation agendas, leading to the approval by cabinet in May 2013 of the National Climate Change Policy. Further, the project enabled the production of a Policy Advisory Series, a document that addressed climate change issues from 19 key themes (e.g. development planning, agriculture, disaster risk reduction, education, energy, forestry, health, tourism, transport, indigenous knowledge, capacity building) to be used as in parliamentary briefings and government agencies to inform their advocacy and policy work on climate change adaptation.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
UNDP will continue to assist the Government of Ghana in its efforts to design and implement climate change adaptation policies by facilitating access to various international financing mechanisms (e.g. Green Climate Fund). One proposal submitted to the Adaptation Fund was approved in 2013. In addition, the project assisted in the preparation of key policy documents for setting up an Institutional Finance Mechanism for climate change in Ghana, based on international good practice principles gathered at meetings with leaders and policy-makers.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
Perhaps the strongest component of the project was the focus on capacity building at all levels. At the local level, for instance, authorities in 170 districts around the country received training on mainstreaming climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. In addition, the project helped develop a guide for mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk into national development policies, which was disseminated to district budget officers to incorporate into their planning and budgets. As a result, a total of 64 districts had included and budgeted for climate change adaptation activities in their 2012 budget. Project implementers also compiled an Indigenous Knowledge Atlas, incorporating local knowledge about climate and weather gathered through research carried out in the five pilot districts. In addition, representatives from national government departments and agencies, along with religious leaders, participated at workshops to discuss how to support mainstreaming of adaptation within their remit, with 160 high level leaders committing to facilitate the mainstreaming process. Training was also provided to staff at the Ghana Meteorological Agency on early warning signs to enhance their ability to gather, monitor and use weather data and improve weather and early warning forecasting and climate projections. Finally, a mentoring programme was set up and offered to mentors and mentees recruited from over 15 organisations to ensure knowledge building and diffusion on climate change in their respective organisations
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
Project implementers noted the lack of appropriate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for the overall project at the outset of implementation. But the local project management unit had its own monitoring system in place to track many of the project activities. This was the case, for instance, of the pilot projects in the four of the five districts, which were regularly monitored, although implementers noted the need for clearer indicators to track results. Also, the end of project review noted a number of key lessons learned. These included, for instance, the need to engage local communities in the design and implementation of adaptation pilot activities to ensure ownership and commitment that will sustain outputs. Implementation in the pilot districts showed that planned activities far exceeded local technical capacity to enable them to be delivered in an effective manner, so there is a clear need to undertake local capacity assessment alongside activity design.
Start date - End date: 
09/2010 - 02/2013
Abstract: 
The project overall aim was to enable Ghana to reduce the vulnerability of coastal zone, agriculture, rural livelihoods and human health to climate change disasters by effecting systemic change, and promoting a holistic and integrated approach to adaptation. A comprehensive programme of initiatives informed by inputs from many sections of society focused on developing an early warning system for Ghana as well as building capacity.

Ghana is highly vulnerable to climate change and projected scenarios marked by temperature shifts, decreased rainfall levels and changes in the timing and intensity of w

Source of funding: 
International - Multilateral
Funding description: 

US$ 2.76 m (Government of Japan/UNDP). UNDP CO provided PMU with financial reports generated in Atlas (Project Budget Balance, etc.) on regular bases (monthly) and upon request.

How did you know?: 
Other
Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
Africa Climate Change Ghana
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Africa Climate change Ghana
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Demand-driven climate information for agricultural planning and decision-making

Type: 
Good practice
Topic: 
Agriculture
Disaster risk management
Cross cutting: 
Capacity Building
Awareness Raising
Communication and Media
Indigenous knowledge
Country: 
Kenya
Geographic coverage: 
Local (city or municipality)
Keywords: 
community
agriculture
Livestock
Climate service
ICPAC
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
At the farming community level within GHA, there has not been any deliberate (formal) weather/climate information dissemination services for purposes of agricultural planning and decision making. Most communities have been relying on their own (indigenous knowledge) weather prediction while others claim to be “making rain”. However, due to climate change, the seasons were no longer predictable; crop production was no longer predictable; pastures and water availability were no longer predictable; food security was no longer predictable and so neither were community livelihoods. The IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (hosted by ICPAC) worked closely with the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) to develop relevant weather information packages and deliver them in a timely manner to the farmers and pastoralists in the participating communities. Some of the information was meant to inform farmer’s commencement of agricultural operations at the beginning of a season while other information was provided as the season proceeded to help in decision-making as to the timing of various agricultural operations such as planting, weeding, top-dressing, use of strategic pasture reserves and movement of livestock to other grazing and watering areas.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
The Nganyi community are peasants that depend upon traditional weather forecasting capacity, using local indicators that include trees, animals, insects, reptiles, as well as local climate observatories. The project coordinators agreed that consensus forecast from the ten indigenous 'shrines' would be obtained and passed to the project forecast evaluation team that was located at a local university, before the ICPAC RCOF regional outlooks and KMS national forecasts were released. Several local youths were trained by KMS and ICPAC on weather observations from the new installed weather stations in the area and disaster risk reduction. The Oloitokitok communities are predominantly nomadic pastoralists, living in the arid and semiarid part of Kenya prone to frequent droughts. The community has a group ranching tenure system and dissemination of climate information is coordinated by an institutional framework of local elders with support from the government. The Reru area is located very close to Lake Victoria yet characterized by semi-arid conditions with large seasonal and inter annual variability in rainfall. The area has a large group of subsistence farmers, some of whom keep livestock. The group chosen for the pilot study in Reru comprised of dedicated members of a catholic church chosen by the head priest. The dissemination of local climate information was coordinated at Reru Catholic Church by the head priest.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
Climate-related disasters have already caused significant economic losses in most production sectors; for example, the 2008-2011 drought in Kenya caused a loss of approximately Ksh 968.6 billion (USD 12.1 billion) in which livestock sector alone suffered close to Ksh 700 billion. The GHA region has been relying on relief food for a long time; this is not sustainable in the long run. Through support from the Rockefeller Foundation (Grant: 2011 CRD301), ICPAC, in collaboration with Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), implemented a 3-year project aimed at strengthening the capacity of vulnerable communities in climate risk reduction for improved agricultural production and food security. This was achieved through the development and dissemination of tailor-made, demand-driven agro-meteorological products and services.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
The Oloitokitok community is practicing some open irrigation farming activities along the local river, whenever adequate river water is available. The seasonal climate information and advice provided by the project is used by the pastoralists to rationally exploit the good seasons and use the scarce pasture and water resources appropriately. This has enabled livestock in this community to maintain high condition scores even during and after prolonged dry spells. The advisories have also helped in delaying pastoral migrations since management of pastures and water resources have greatly improved. In Reru community the farmers have benefited through a new partnership with East African Breweries who have engaged them to produce beer-type sorghum. KMS constructed a local climate information center for Nganyi community that was equipped with communication systems to support dissemination of community based climate information that integrates with KMS local forecasts and local information by Nganyi community. The training of Nganyi community on KMS-based observations and forecasting tools at community forums have contributed to improved use of climate information by the community. Farmers in this community are now widely using climate information in planning and managing their agricultural operations.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
The project's main innovation of disseminating weather information through SMS messages was highly welcomed by both farmers and other stakeholders; it was highly rated by farmers and project staff, as compared to other methods of weather information dissemination. For example, it is a cheaper means of communication (an SMS costs only KSh 1 or $0.0125) and thus very affordable; it is a quick form of communication thus ensures timely delivery of useful information; an SMS is short, thus the message is very precise; also an SMS could be stored on the mobile phone for sometime as reference; the avenue is also appropriate to farmers because it is not as disruptive to farmers as would be the case if formal meetings were required by extension or project staff. The majority of households now own a mobile phone, (during a baseline survey that was conducted in the four pilot communities mid 2012, we found out that there was at least a mobile phone in 80% of farming households visited), thus, the use of SMS in communicating weather information guarantees wider delivery of information in a short time; use of the mobile phone also allows two-way communication and thus ensures quick delivery of feedback from the information users and SMSs are targeted to specific recipients (e.g. maize farmers, extension officers, cassava growers, etc), thus they are less prone to ambiguous interpretations by the recipients. Currently there is a proposal submitted to carry out the same project in Burundi.
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
A post-season evaluation forum also formed an important component of this project during which project results for a specific season were evaluated. It may be noted that the yield obtained by the project ranged from 3 times as the lowest and over 20 times as highest scenario when community based climate information was provided and utilized by local communities. All participating farmers were closely involved in the implementation of the project activities with close supervision by local leadership and extension personnel. Maximum gains were recorded by Reru community under the leadership of the local priest. This has triggered some new private partnerships to produce millet/sorghum to support one of the beer industries in Kenya. Additionally, the project has triggered several new community based climate risk reduction pilot studies in other locations in Kenya and other IGAD member countries.
Start date - End date: 
06/2011 - 05/2014
Abstract: 
Here we discuss one of the most successful projects implemented at ICPAC, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation which aims at contributing to climate risk reduction in agriculture and food security. This was achieved by strengthening the capacity of ICPAC to provide community demand-driven climate information for application in agricultural planning and decision-making, at community level. The project integrated local community knowledge with knowledge from the climate community and agricultural experts to come up with the specific community based climate risk reduction advisories.

The process started by scaling down of the products from WMO Global Climate Producing Centres (GPCs) by ICPAC, and its Member States’ NMHSs at RCOF, to derive regional climate outlooks.

Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
ICPAC
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Jasper Bwesingwa
Address: 
10304-00100, Nairobi
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Johannesburg’s Bus Rapid Transit System, Rea Vaya

Type: 
Good practice
Acronym: 
Rea Vaya
Topic: 
Infrastructure
Transport
Cross cutting: 
Awareness Raising
Capacity Building
Governmental and intergovernmental actions
Country: 
South Africa
Location: 
Johannesburg
Geographic coverage: 
Local (city or municipality)
Keywords: 
BRT
Bus Rapid Transit system
Transport
Urban Transport
public transport
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
One of the keys to the successful implementation of Rea Vaya in Johannesburg was the use of experts in various fields from transport to corporate governance and finance as independent advisors; and visits by active participants in the negotiating processes for the Bus Operating Company (BOC) to South American cities where BRTs were operating successfully. Early interactions between minibus tax owners and the municipality paved the way for formal negotiations to be initiated. Minibus taxis convey a large proportion of daily commuters around South Africa on highly competitive fixed routes in Toyota 10-seater panel vans known colloquially as minibus taxis. These minibuses are privately owned and managed but are supposed to be licensed for public transport and the driver is supposed to have a public driving permit. At the onset of these negotiations, participants as well as representatives from two bus companies that would be affected by Rea Vaya, paid a visit to the South American cities of Bogata, Colombia and Guayaquil, Ecuador to explore these two cities functioning BRT systems. A second visit involving representatives from 18 minibus taxi owner associations was organised soon thereafter. These visits were important as they provided functioning examples of BRT so that all participants clearly understood what the end product was that they were negotiating over. Towards the end of negotiations, 24.9% of shares in the BOC were sold to Fanalca, a large Colombian Industrial company with experience in running a number of BRTs in South America. The purpose of this partnership was to allow Fanalca South Africa, a newly formed local subsidiary of Fanalca, to provide systems and management support and training. The consequent effect of all these site visits, expertise and training was the rapid development of the future owners and operators understanding of the complexities of implementing a complex and integrated urban transport system and the development of their skills to negotiate, implement and manage the necessary agreements and company structure.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
Initially the project proposal led to massive rejection from the taxi industry that uses Toyota minibuses to transport a large proportion of the poorer communities around South Africa. Taxi owners argued that Rea Vaya would lead to serious erosion of their business. The strategy adopted was to bring the minibus taxi owners into the Rea Vaya business model under a complex set of negotiations that took 14 months and are covered in more detail in the section titled Political Ownership. Although these negotiations quelled some of the protests from the taxi industry, there have been a series of protests from a variety of sources. Buses have been stoned in some communities and required armed patrols. Local communities have also protested over not being included in the construction phase as routes continue to be rolled out. These have been dealt with on a negotiation basis at local level whereby some locals have been included into the labour force. Unions have also intruded through a series of bus-driver strikes, protesting over internal matters and external issues more pertinent to South Africa than Rea Vaya. Again these have been dealt with on a situational basis through negotiation with the parties involved.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
The BRT project was violently opposed from the first announcements of the project. This came mainly from local minibus taxi owners and drivers who feared the competition BRT would produce on taxi routes that were already heavily competitive. The National DoT together with Cabinet created a supportive environment for the implementation of BRT that, through a number of acts and concept plans, enabled negotiation between all sectors of society and the municipality. The taxi industries opposition to the BRT was to some extent justified as successful implementation of BRT would destroy the means of income for thousands involved in the taxi industry using the routes envisaged in BRT. On one set of routes, the overall plan was to switch more than 300 minibus taxi owners from owning and running hundreds of minibus taxis, to being shareholders in a Bus Operating Company (BOC) subcontracted by the municipality to run the BRT service. Minibus taxi drivers and other employees were expected to provide the bulk of drivers and other employees of the minibus taxi company in the BRT Company. The BOC would be responsible for all aspects of running their Rea Vaya routes and receive a per kilometres payment regardless of passenger usage while the municipality would receive all fare revenue, and could change routes if necessary or allow another BRT company to operate on the same routes in the future. The resulting agreements were a significant and major empowerment deal in the public transport sector which involved grassroots operators from the informal taxi sector having 100% shareholding in a modern BRT company. However the negotiations to achieve this were exceedingly complex, and involved multiple role players, independent facilitators, numerous agreements and concessions from both sides, and a great deal of capital as the minibus owners required payouts that would mimic their previous earnings, i.e. weekly or monthly, while the project was still getting established. These negotiations are outlined in a paper available on the internet by Colleen McCaul and Simphiwe Ntuli titled “Negotiating the deal to enable the first Rea Vaya Bus Operating Company, agreements, experiences and lessons.” A number of BOC are subsequently being established with taxi owners and employees on other routes used by Johannesburg’s BRT system.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
The size of the BRT envisaged and the complexities of involving hundreds of taxi owners into BOCs operating specific routes and who had to give up their taxi fleets that had operated on these routes meant the financial issues were exceedingly complex. However the involvement of government at all levels meant that finances and expertise were available. These funds came from the municipal budget and DoT’s Public Transport and Infrastructure fund. The final agreement with the taxi owners was to provide guaranteed payments for 12 years, with the BOC being paid a fixed fee per kilometre with a guaranteed number of kilometres. Under this agreement the municipality kept all revenue generated regardless of the number of passengers, retaining the rights over routes and had a step-in clause under certain circumstances to the BOC. The guaranteed fee and total kilometres were important foundations to achieving the final agreement as the taxi owners knew in advance what their earnings would be for giving up their fleets and becoming shareholders in the project. In this way the municipality was responsible for all the financial risks of the BRT system. The Bus Operator’s Company owned the buses and were responsible for all maintenance of buses as well as the cleaning and security at all depots.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
Although the taxi owners had experience in business through running their taxi fleets, they had no experience in running a large multi-shareholder company. Early in the negotiations the taxi owners were provided with offices alongside the BRT offices and finances for a fulltime technical advisor and office support staff of the taxi owner’s choice. Later on the technical advisory team was expanded to include legal, financial and business support, again of the taxi owner’s choice, for the taxi drivers Taxi Steering Committee formulated to negotiate with the municipal BRT team. Finally when all the issues had been ironed out a Negotiation Closure agreement was signed which agreed that the taxi owners who were now future shareholders would be provided with training. This included induction workshops with topics such as corporate governance and the day-to-day operation of the BOC. Mentoring was also provided to the new management team. A Value Chain Agreement included a clause stating that the Municipality would run a training programme for BOC members on how they could take advantage of the opportunities represented in the value chain policy framework. Training was provided to convert taxi drivers to driving the articulated buses but they had to already have an E14 license that allowed them to drive an articulated bus prior to training. It is unclear how many taxi drivers had these licenses and whether they were supposed to obtain them themselves or if systems were established for drivers to upgrade to these licenses.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
The original DoT’s Public Transport Strategy and Action Plan included 12 cities. Cape Town started running its My City BRT system in May 2010 and rolling out of the phase 1 continues. Nelson Mandela Bay planned its BRT system as far back as 2008 but so far has only managed to implement 15 km of road with 25 buses. It is beset with problems, mainly through weak municipal governance and poor implementation. Between 2008 and 2013, the project has had five different engineers and four different project managers, while the mayor and city managers have also changed a number of times. The steering committee overseeing the project is exclusively staffed with members from the dominant political party. The situation has not been helped by the shuffling of three national Ministers of Transport between 2012 and 2013. After three years of negotiations with taxi owners and more than R300 million (Approx $30 million) spent, no agreement has been reached. Poor planning and engineering has resulted in a need to re-engineer road widths and bus stops as shops had been damaged by turning buses and large trucks could no longer turn in lanes dedicated to them. Following a process as complex as Johannesburg has done in a successful manner requires the stabilization and improvement in municipal management and access to the steering committee by opposition political parties to ensure accountability. Tswane (Pretoria) has started implementing its plans and construction began in 2012. However, progress has been slow with the first A Re Yeng bus, as Tswane has named its service, unveiled in May 2014. Rustenburg’s BRT has also suffered numerous delays but it is expected that the first phase will come online in 2016. Thus far R683 million (about $68 million) has been spent on the project with an expected expenditure of about R2 billion from 2014 to 2016. Like Johannesburg, Rustenburg has identified taxi associations on affected routes and a Taxi Negotiating Forum has been established. However these negotiations are in their early days and are expected to only be complete towards the end of 2015. The municipality also formed a Labour Steering Committee to ensure labour was drawn from local communities along the routes in an equitable manner. BRT’s are currently in the planning stage in four other cities: namely eThekwini, Polokwane, Nelspruit and George.
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
The Bus Operating Company Agreement (BOCA) included clauses to monitor performance and provides for step-in rights for the city. However information is not available on the exact wording of these clauses but presumably they included such areas as bus, station and depot maintenance and cleanliness.
Abstract: 
The City of Johannesburg is implementing a Bus rapid Transport system called Rea Vaya and currently has 120 km of a final 330 km up and running. The principle hurdle was the minibus taxi owners and drivers who feared competition and loss of business and jobs where routes overlapped. The solution was to incorporate the minibus taxi owners into a bus operating company responsible for maintenance of buses, depots and bus stops. The municipality retained all fare revenue, ownership of infrastructure and the right to alter routes and leased routes to the BOC on a fixed total kilometers rate.

Source of funding: 
National
Contact email: 
How did you know?: 
Other
Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
David Furniss
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
David Furniss
Additional documents: 
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Scaling up the use of biogas technology in rural Senegal

Type: 
Good practice
Acronym: 
BIOGAS UGPM
Topic: 
Agriculture
Energy
Health
Bio-energy
Energy efficiency and conservation
Renewable energy
Cross cutting: 
Awareness Raising
Community Managed Initiatives
Financing
Country: 
Senegal
Location: 
Ngaye Mekhe district (Senegal)
Geographic coverage: 
Local (city or municipality)
Keywords: 
Climate Change Mitigation
degradation
deforestation
Biogas
energy services
biofertilisers
UGPM
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
The construction of biogas plants (Picture 1) has created an active platform for sharing technological knowledge and know-how. In this respect, the agreement with the Union of Agricultural Producers of Quebec in Canada has strengthened technical skills through the facilitation and implementation of a videoconference on biogas in favour of the UGPM’s units, involving local technicians and direct beneficiaries of biogas units. Also, exchange visits to the Burkina Faso biogas program and the development of video support were among other methods of improving skills both during the construction phase and the operation of biogas plants. Under the auspices of ANCAR (Agricultural and Rural Council National Agency), endogenous knowledge has been remarkably developed by local experimental initiatives. Indeed, the application of biofertilizers (solid and/or liquid residue from the biochemical process of biogas) on market gardening and food crops has significantly improved crop yields (Picture 2).
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
The motivation and commitment of the beneficiary community can be viewed from different angles. The inception workshop was a great opportunity to hold a proactive discussion on numerous points (funding scheme and access, coaching mechanism, etc.). This first step constituted an important pillar for the stakeholder engagement. Thereafter, rural outreach was organized by the UGPM unit combined with regular radio shows that stimulated the interest of the whole community in biogas technology. This awareness raising campaign focused on the benefits of the biogas unit, including improved energy efficiency, increased energy access, enhanced soil fertility through the application of biofertilizers. In addition, in-situ visits were organized during the four test units (pilot).
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
Institutional technical collaboration between the PNB (National Biogas Program) and the UGPM unit represented the first level of commitment and ownership of the project, resulting in the construction of the first test biogas units in NGaye Mekhe area (UGPM intervention area). The intervention and supervision of GNP scheme (grant averaging up to 33%, technical support, monitoring, etc.) likely convinced and positively influenced the commitment of local authorities and enabled decentralized technical services. Given the initial positive results of the pilot units, five rural and town communities have demonstrated their commitment to disseminate the biogas unit. In this respect, the three-year investment plan has been revised to include additional budget lines for financing the enlargement of new biogas in the Ngaye Mekhe community.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
The transition between the test phase and the deployment stage was facilitated by the viability and sustainability of the funding scheme implemented with a consortium partner. In fact, apart the grant of PNB (nearly one third of the total cost), the microfinance institution of the UGPM unit (CREG) provides loans to its members to supplement the balance necessary for the construction and support services and quality control of the requested unit. To meet the high demand for biogas units, the UGPM unit has strengthened its networking by liaising with key partners such as the SIDI. As a direct benefit, SIDI has provided a grant averaging 10 million FCFA to the CREG microfinance facility. To date, 100% of the loans have been recovered.
Principle 5: 
Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Principle 5 comment: 
The installation of biogas units has led to an observed decrease in lung disease due to smoke reduction, while improved kitchen decor and increased access lighting and cooking represent significant advantages. Further benefits include the reduction of deforestation and improved health and hygiene of the beneficiaries. In addition, the construction of biogas plants has created rural employment (masons, metal carpenters, etc.), contributing to a dynamic local economy. Lastly, the application of the biofertilizers has improved the soil fertility, enhancing agricultural productivity.
Principle 6: 
Building local capacity
Principle 6 comment: 
To ensure a sustainable intervention, the project approach is mainly driven towards a scheme of transfer and development of local knowledge and skills. From the test phase up to the dissemination stage, local technicians have been trained in diverse aspects, including the construction of the gasification containers (biogas digesters), the manufacture of the metal hand-wheel for mixing the dung waste and technical management and sales. Therefore, the establishment of an Economic Group of Interest (EIG) to provide these services has helped upgrade skills and provide apprenticeships for young workers to learn the trade of installing biogas units.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
After the completion of training sessions on marketing strategies, the EIG of biogas technicians is performing services in areas covered by UGPM unit and other external areas. From this point of view, scaling-up the dissemination of biogas units is relatively easy and ensured by the existence of well-trained local technicians and business people. The process disseminating biogas units is also facilitated by the supervision and technical guidance of PNB, including the quality control and safety of construction in commissioning and monitoring all biogas units. Given the positive results obtained, the NGO UGPM plans to expand and replicate the same financial and technical apparatus in its other savings and credit facilities.
Principle 8: 
Monitoring and evaluation
Principle 8 comment: 
A joint monitoring and assessment team (PNB staff, UGPM unit, quality control supervisor, local trained technicians and beneficiaries) was set up to follow the biogas deployment, and to provide needed assistance. For example, three fieldwork exercises of supervision and quality control have been organized to ensure the safety and proper operation of the services delivered (electricity, heat and biofertilisers). The results of the midterm assessment of the grants provided thus far indicate positive direct and indirect effects in the target area of UGPM. (improvement in the quality of life, enhancement of women and young, improved health and increased energy access).
Start date - End date: 
12/2008 - 11/2018
Abstract: 
This case study summarizes the experience of installing and scaling-up biogas units in order to mitigate the degradation and deforestation in the region of Ngaye Mekhe (west-central Senegal). To reverse the land degradation and unsustainable wood harvesting, that are also causes and effects of climate change, a pilot phase and deployment phase of biogas unit were performed through a strategic partnership with the National Program of Biogas (PNB) and the SIDI (bilateral funding partner).

This case study summarizes the experience of installing and scaling-up biogas units in order to mitigate the degradation and deforestation in the region of Ngaye Mekhe (west-central Senegal).

Source of funding: 
International - Bilateral
Funding description: 

- Mix of National Biogas Program –PNB: national subsidy for the beneficiaries 

- Microfinancial Institution of UGPM-CREC: grants/loans for the beneficiaries

- SIDI (Solidarité Internationale pour le Développement et l’Investissement):  Provided loans/grants for the CREC

- beneficiaries (in-kind/monetary contribution)

Contact email: 
How did you know?: 
Other
Imagery: 
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Samba FALL
Address: 
54, Rue Carnot
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Mobile Weather Alerts for farmers in the lake Victoria region

Type: 
Good practice
Topic: 
Agriculture
Cross cutting: 
Capacity Building
Awareness Raising
Communication and Media
Country: 
Tanzania
Uganda
Geographic coverage: 
Regional
Keywords: 
weather
farming
Fishing
Forecasting
Principles: 
Principle 1: 
Knowledge building
Principle 1 comment: 
Lake Victoria in East Africa provides livelihood, directly or indirectly, to over 3.5 million people and is the world’s largest tropical freshwater lake. Sudden changes in weather conditions over the Lake causes serious weather hazards to lake users’ e.g. high winds and waves. Severe storms occur over Lake Victoria at any time of year and historically, forecasting these extreme conditions was difficult. Local fishermen were unable to make informed decisions and prepare accordingly. WMO, through its network of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services around the world, worked to improve this situation by bridging the “last mile.” With support from the Norwegian Government and the World Bank, the WMO Mobile Weather Alert project piloted the dissemination of weather and climate information directly to end-users in Uganda, taking advantage of the widespread availability of mobile phones.
Principle 2: 
Community participation and inclusiveness
Principle 2 comment: 
An estimated 5,000 members of the fishing community die in boating accidents in the lake each year because they are unprepared for bad weather conditions. As a result the Kalangala Fishing community, Uganda Department of Meteorology, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), MTN, Ericsson, National Lake Rescue Institute came together in a unique partnership, and combined mobile technology, weather forecasting and local know-how, to provide a localized weather alert service to fishing villages on Lake Victoria. The project involves training 19 fishermen in basic understanding of weather forecasts and how to respond to various alerts. Equipped with mobile phones, the community representatives then pass on their knowledge to fishermen and traders to sign up to the Mobile Weather Alert service. An important part of Mobile Weather Alert project was the establishment of an interchange between the pilot communities and service providers in order to collect feedback on the service. Thus far, the value of the Mobile Weather Alert forecast service is being repeatedly confirmed.
Principle 3: 
Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Principle 3 comment: 
The project was led by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with support from the Uganda Department of Meteorology, MTN, Ericsson, National Lake Rescue Institute, the Kalangala fishing community and the Met Office. This unique partnership combined mobile technology, weather forecasting and local knowledge to provide a localized Mobile Weather Alert service solution. Forecasters from the Uganda Department of Meteorology combined model and satellite data as well as other indicators to produce forecast guidance for the Lake Victoria region, it also accessed a range of numerical weather prediction models to enhance its forecasting capability. The Met Office contributed to forecasting over the Lake Victoria by developing a new 4km resolution forecast model which is run twice a day. The model is important in capturing more realistic wind speeds and rain rates for the area. This information were used for the Mobile Weather Alert service for the lake users.
Principle 4: 
Financial sustainability
Principle 4 comment: 
The lake supports Africa's largest inland fishery and produces over 800,000 tons of fish annually, currently worth about USD 600,000,000. The Norwegian Government provided 500,000 USD for the project, in Uganda and Tanzania. Some aspects were also covered through the World Bank Project. WMO offered to support key training elements of the project. The UK Met Office procured 2­AWSs through UK VCP to support trial.
Principle 7: 
Transferable
Principle 7 comment: 
A mobile-phone based survey, conducted by Grameen Foundation AppLab Uganda, of 200 fishermen using Mobile Weather Alert service reported the weather alert service being important with 96% of the respondents saying it has improved the safety of their lives. The services provided in the Mobile Weather Alert project are designed to be replicable and scalable to any community and can be adapted to fit other user needs that rely on weather in decision-making, since it helped to save lives and preserve livelihoods according to the survey conducted by Grameen Foundation AppLab Uganda.
Abstract: 
Access to high-quality weather and climate information is low in many rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Where such information is available, it is uncertain that it reaches the end-users who need it most and whose livelihoods depend on it. And, if it does reach them, it is uncertain that the users are able to understand the information and make decisions based on it. With this project, a free, user-friendly, Mobile Weather Alert service was developed to provide forecast and warning information to farmers and fisherman in the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania and Uganda.

The impacts of climate variability and severe weather conditions has lead to hundreds of thousands of lives, and livelihoods, being lost every year in Africa.

Imagery: 
Imagery copyright: 
Patrick Luganda
Author(s) information: 
Name: 
Patrick Luganda
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